Knutson, K. & Crowley, K. (2020). Growing up with art: How interest, opportunity and support shape learning pathways of visual arts professionals. In Knutson, K., Okada, T., & Crowley, K. (Eds.) (in press). Multidisciplinary Approaches to Art Learning and Creativity: Fostering Artistic Exploration in Formal and Informal Settings. Routledge. 

Knutson, K., Okada, T., & Crowley, K. (Eds.) (2020). Multidisciplinary Approaches to Art Learning and Creativity: Fostering Artistic Exploration in Formal and Informal Settings. Routledge. 

Hecht, M. & Crowley, K. (2020). Unpacking the learning ecosystem framework: Lessons from the adaptive management of biological systems. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(29), 264-284.

Hecht, M., Knutson, K., Crowley, K., Lyon, M., McShea, P., and Giarrantani, L. (2020). “How could dinosaurs be so close to the future?”: How natural history museum educators tackle deep time. Curator. 63 (1). 39-54.

Knutson, K and Crowley, C. (2020). Engaging older adults in climate science education: Making the case for relevant, neighborhood-focused interventions. In P. Hetland, P. Pierroux, and L. Esborg (Eds), A History of Participation in Museums and Archives. Traversing Citizen Science and Citizen Humanities. Routledge.

Steiner, M.A.*, Lyon, M., & Crowley, K. (2020). Museums that connect science and citizen: Using boundary objects and networks to encourage dialogue and collective response to wicked, socio-scientific problems. In P. Hetland, P. Pierroux, and L. Esborg (Eds), A History of Participation in Museums and Archives. Traversing Citizen Science and Citizen Humanities. Routledge.

Bonnette, R. & Crowley, K. (2020). Legitimate peripheral participation in a makerspace for emancipated emerging adults. Emerging Adulthood8(2), 144–158.


Bonnette, R. N., Crowley, K., & Schunn, C. D. (2019). Falling in love and staying in love with science: ongoing informal science experiences support fascination for all childrenInternational Journal of Science Education41(12), 1626-1643.

Hecht, M., Knutson, K. & Crowley, K. (2019) Becoming a naturalist: Interest development across the learning ecology. Science Education, 103(3), 691-713.


Crowley, K. (2018). Are the fields of informal science education and science communication adjacent or connected? A bibliometric study of research journals from 2012 to 2016. Washington, DC: Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education.

Knutson, K. (2018). Science and natural history museums and the challenges of communicating climate change. In Schroeder, K., Drotner, K., Perry, D. (Eds.). The Routledge Handbook of Museum Media and Communication. Routledge.

Akiva, T., Russell, J., Hecht, M., & Crowley, K. (2018). Leadership in Out-of-School Learning: The Educational Doctorate Program at the University of Pittsburgh. International Journal for Research on Extended Education.


Eberbach, C. & Crowley, K. (2017) From Seeing to Observing: How Parents and Children Learn to See Science in a Botanical Garden, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 26:4, 608-642.

Louw, M., Barbuto, N., & Crowley, K. (2017). Designing Learning Pathways in a Complex Learning Ecology: A Research Practice Partnership Focused on Parent Brokering. In B. DiSalvo, J. Yip, E. Bonsignore, & C. DiSalvo (Eds), Participatory Design for Learning: Perspectives from Research and Practice. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 93-112.

Russell, J. L., Kehoe, S. & Crowley, K. (2017). Linking in and out-of-school learning. In K. Peppler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Out-of-School Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Dorph, R., Schunn, C., & Crowley, K. (2017). Crumpled molecules and edible plastic: Science learning Activation in Out-of-School Time. Afterschool Matters, 25, pp. 18-28.

Allen, L. B. & Crowley, K. (2017). Moving beyond scientific knowledge: Leveraging participation, relevance, and interconnectedness for climate education. International Journal of Global Warming. 12 (3 & 4), 299-312.

Allen, L.B. & Crowley, K. (2017). From acquisition to inquiry: Supporting informal educators through iterative implementation of practice. In P. Patrick (Ed), Preparing Informal Educators: Perspectives from Science Communication and Education. New York: Springer.


Knutson, K, Lyon, M., Crowley, K., & Giarratani, L. (2016). Flexible interventions to increase family engagement at Natural History museum dioramas. Curator: The Museum Journal. 59 (4), 339-352.

Knutson, K. & Crowley, K. (2016). Learning in art museums: Creating and responding to art. In K. Nakakoji, H. Shindo, Y. Yamamoto, & T. Okada (Eds.), Museums that inspire: In search of new possibilities for public cultural spaces. Kyoto: Airi Shuppan. [in Japanese]

Knutson, K. & Crowley, K. (2016) Collaborating across the university/informal boundary: Broader impacts through informal science education. In L. Avraamidou & W.-M. Roth (Eds.), Intersections of formal and informal science. New York, NY: Routledge.

Brahms, L. & Crowley, K. (2016). Making Sense of Making: Defining Learning Practices in MAKE Magazine. In K. Peppler, E. Rosenfeld Halverson, & Y. B. Kafai (Eds). Makeology: Makers as Learners.  New York: Routledge.

Brahms, L. & Crowley, K. (2016). Learning to Make in the Museum: The Role of Maker Educators. In K. Peppler, E. Rosenfeld Halverson, & Y. B. Kafai (Eds). Makeology: Makerspaces as Learning Environments. New York: Routledge.

Stein, M.K., Crowley, K., & Resnick, L.B. (2016). Education policy and the learning sciences: The case for a new alliance. In M. Evans, M. Packer, & K. Sawyer (Eds.), Reflections on the Learning Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dillon, J., DeWitt, J., Pegram, E., Irwin, B., Crowley, K., Hayden, R., King, H., Knutson, K., Veall, D., and Zanthoudaki, M. (2016). A learning research agenda for natural history institutions. London: Natural History Museum.


Tison Povis, K. & Crowley, K. (2015). Family learning in object-based museums: The role of joint attention.Visitor Studies, 18 (2), 168-182.        

Crowley, K., Barron, B.J., Knutson, K., & Martin, C. (2015). Interest and the development of pathways to science. In Interest in Mathematics and Science Learning. In K. A. Renninger, M. Nieswandt, and S. Hidi (Eds.). Washington DC: AERA.


Crowley, K., Pierroux, P., & Knutson, K. (2014). The museum as learning environment. In K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Handbook of the Learning Sciences, 2nd Edition.

Snyder, S., Hoffstadt, R. M., Allen, L., Crowley, K., Bader, D., & Horton, R. (2014). City-wide collaborations for urban climate education. In Hamilton, P. (Ed.), Future Earth:  Advancing Civic Understanding of the Anthropocene, Geophysical Monograph Series, Vol. 197, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Allen, L. B. & Crowley, K. (2014). How museum educators change: Changing notions of learning through changing practice. Science Education, 98 (1), 84-105.


Steiner, M.A. & Crowley, K. (2013). The natural history museum: Taking on a learning research agenda. Curator: The Museum Journal, 56(2): 267-272.

Russell, J., Knutson, K., & Crowley, K. (2013).  Informal learning organizations as part of an educational ecology: Lessons from collaboration across the formal/informal divide. Journal of Educational Change, 14(3): 259-281.

Knutson, K. (2013). Exploring art and history at the Warhol Museum using a Timeweb. In K. Drotner, and K. Schroeder (Eds.) The connected museum: Social media and museum communication. London: Routledge.

Louw, M. & Crowley, K. (2013). New ways of looking and learning in natural history museums: The use of gigapixel imagingto bring science and publics together. Curator: The Museum Journal, 52(1): 87-104.


Steiner, M., Galvin, & T. Green (2012). Manchester Craftsmen’s Guild: Art, Mentorship, and Environment Shape a Culture of Learning and Engagement. In VeLure Roholt, R., Baizerman, M., & Hildreth, R.W. (Eds.) Civic Youth Work: Cocreating Democratic Youth Spaces. (pp 81-114). Chicago: Lyceum Books.


Giarrantani, L., Parikh, A., Di Salvo, B., Knutson, K. & Crowley, K. (2011). Click!: Pre-teen girls and a mixed reality role playing game for science and technology. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 3.6, 121-138.

Knutson, K., Crowley, K., Russell, J., & Steiner, M.A. (2011). Approaching art education as an ecology: Exploring the role of museums. Studies in Art Education, 52 (4), 310-322.


Kim, K.Y. & Crowley, K. (2010). Negotiating the goal of museum inquiry: How families engineer and experiment. M.K. Stein & L. Kucan (Eds). Instructional Explanations in the Disciplines. New York: Springer.

Knutson, K. & Crowley, K. (2010). Connecting with Art: How families talk about art in a museum setting. M.K. Stein & L. Kucan (Eds). Instructional Explanations in the Disciplines. New York: Springer.

Luke, J. & Knutson, K. (2010). Beyond Science: Implications of the LSIE report for Art Museum Education. Curator 53.2, 229-237.

Reich, C., Price, J., Rubin, E., & Steiner, M. (2010). Inclusion, Disabilities, and Informal Science Learning. A CAISE Inquiry Group Report. Washington, D.C.: Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education (CAISE).


DiSalvo, C., Louw, M. Coupland, J., Steiner M. (2009). Local issues, local uses: Tools for robotics and sensing in community contexts. In Proceedings of the Seventh ACM Conference on Creativity & Cognition (C&C '09). ACM, New York, NY, USA

Eberbach, C.E. & Crowley, K. (2009). From Everyday to Scientific Observation: How Children Learn to Observe the Biologist's World. Review of Educational Research, 79 (1), 39-69.

Bernstein, D. & Crowley, K. (2009). Can robots think for themselves? Identifying spaces for the exploration of children's ideas about robots. In the proceedings of Computer Human Interaction.

Knutson, K. & Crowley, K. (2006). Bridging the gap between museums and visitors: A response to Meszaros's 'The evil “Whatever” interpretation.' Visitor Studies, 9(3), 16-17.


DiSalvo, B.J., Crowley, K. & Norwood, R. (2008). "Learning in Context: Digital games and young black men." Games and Culture 3, 131-141.

Bernstein, D. & Crowley, K. (2008). Searching for Signs of Intelligent Life: An Investigation of Young Children's Beliefs About Robot Intelligence. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 17:2, 225-247.


Sanford, C., Knutson, K., & Crowley, K. (2007). We Always Spend Time Together on Sundays: Grandparents and Informal Learning. Visitor Studies, 10(2), 136-151.

Palmquist, S.D. & Crowley, K. (2007). From teachers to testers: How Parents Talk to Novice and Expert Children in a Natural History Museum. Science Education, 91(5), 712-732.

Fender, J. G. & Crowley, K. (2007). How parent explanation changes what children learn from everyday scientific thinking. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 189-210.

Bernstein, D., Crowley, K. & Nourbakhsh, I. (2007). Working with a robot: Exploring relationship potential in human-robot systems. Interaction Studies, 8 (3), 465-482.

Palmquist, S. D. & Crowley, K. (2007). Studying dinosaur learning on an island of expertise. In R. Goldman, R. Pea, B. Barron, & S. Derry (Eds.), Video Research in the Learning Sciences (pp. 271-286). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.


Leinhardt, G. & Knutson, K. (2006). Grandparents speak: Museum conversations across the generations. Curator, 49 (2), 235-252.

Nourbakhsh, I., Hamner, E., E. Ayoob, Porter, E., Dunlavey, B., Bernstein, D., Crowley, K., Lotter, M., Shelly, S., Hsiu, T., & Clancy, D. (2006). The personal exploration rover: Educational assessment of a robotic exhibit for informal learning venues, The International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp 777-791.

Nourbakhsh, I., Hamner, E., Dunlavey, B., Bernstein, D. , & Crowley. K. (2006). Educational results of the personal exploration rover museum exhibit, In Proceedings of ICRA 2005, Barcelona, Spain, April.

Stubbs, K., Bernstein, D., Crowley, K., & Nourbakhsh, I.  (2006).  Cognitive evaluation of human-robot systems:  A method for analyzing cognitive change in human-robot systems.  In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 59-65.

DiSalvo, B., Parikh, A., & Crowley, K. (2006). Developing The Ultimate Urban Adventure Game For Middle School Girls, Proceedings of the Women in Games Conference 2006, Teesside, UK.

Schunn, C.D., Crowley, K., & Okada, T. (2006). Cognitive science: Interdisciplinarity now and then. In S. J. Derry & M. A. Gernsbacher (Eds.), Problems and Promises of Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Perspectives from Cognitive. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.


Stubbs, K., Bernstein, D., Crowley, K., & Nourbakhsh, I. (2005). Long term human-robot interaction: The personal exploration rovers and museum docents. In Proceedings of Artificial Intelligence and Education.

Nourbakhsh, I., Crowley, K., Bhave, A., Hamner, E., Hsiu, T., Perez-Bergquist, A., Richards, S., Wilkinson, K. (2005).  The Robotic Autonomy Mobile Robotics Course: Robot Design, Curriculum Design and Educational Assessment, Autonomous Robots Journal, 18 (1), 103-127.

Eberbach, C.E. & Crowley, K, (2005). From living to virtual: Learning from museum objects. Curator, 48 (3), 317-338.

Knutson, K. & Crowley, K. (2005). Museum as learning laboratory: Developing and using a practical theory of informal learning. Hand to Hand, the publication of the Association of Children's Museums, 18(4), 4-5.

Crowley, K. & Knutson, K (2005). Museum as learning laboratory: Bringing research and practice together. Hand to Hand, the publication of the Association of Children's Museums, 19(1), 3-6.


Eberbach, C. & Crowley, K. (2004). Learning research in public gardens. Public Garden, 19(2), 14-17.

Knutson, K. & Crowley, K. (2004). Review of Behind the Scenes at the Science Museum. Science Education, 88 (2), 297-300.

Knutson, K. (2004). What does a lifelong learning community look like? Pulling it all together. In M.Maher, (ed.) The 21st Century Learner: The continuum begins with early learning. (44-45). Washington, DC. Association of Children’s Museums.

Leinhardt, G. & Knutson, K. (2004). Listening in on museum conversations. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

Swartz, M. I. & Crowley, K, (2004). Parent beliefs about teaching in a children's museum. Visitor Studies, 7(2), 1-16.


Leinhardt, G., Crowley, K., & Knutson, K. (Eds.) (2002). Learning conversations in museums. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Leinhardt, G. & Crowley, K. (2002). Objects of learning, objects of talk: Changing minds in museums. In S. Paris (Ed.) Multiple Perspectives on Children's Object-Centered Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Crowley, K. & Jacobs, M. (2002). Islands of expertise and the development of family scientific literacy. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, & K. Knutson (Eds.) Learning conversations in museums. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Knutson, K. (2002). Creating a space for Learning: Curators, educators and the implied audience. In Leinhardt, G., Crowley, K., & Knutson, K. (Eds.). Learning Conversations in Museums. 5-44. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Schunn, C. D., Crowley, K., & Okada, T. (2002). What makes collaborations across a distance succeed? The case of the cognitive science community. In P. Hinds & S. Kiesler (Eds.) Distributed work: New research on working across distance using technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Crowley, K., Leinhardt, G., & Chang, C.F. (2001). Emerging research communities and the World Wide Web: Analysis of a Web-based resource for the field of museum learning. Computers and Education, 36 (1), 1-14.

Crowley, K., Callanan, M.A., Tenenbaum, H.R., & Allen, E. (2001). Parents explain more often to boys than to girls during shared scientific thinking. Psychological Science, 12 (3), 258-261.

Crowley, K., Callanan, M.A., Jipson, J., Galco, J., Topping, K., & Shrager, J. (2001). Shared scientific thinking in everyday parent-child activity. Science Education, 85 (6), 712-732.

Crowley, K., Schunn, C.D., & Okada, T. (Eds.) (2001). Designing for science: Implications from everyday, classroom, and professional settings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crowley, K. & Galco, J (2001). Everyday activity and the development of scientific thinking. In K. Crowley, C. D. Schunn, & T. Okada (Eds.), Designing for science: Implications from everyday, classroom, and professional settings (pp. 393-413). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Azmitia, M.A. & Crowley, K. (2001). The rhythms of scientific thinking: A study of collaboration in an earthquake microworld. In K. Crowley, C. Schunn, & T. Okada (Eds.) Designing for science: Implications from everyday, classroom, and professional settings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

2000 and before

Crowley, K. (2000). Parent explanations during museum visits: Gender differences in how children hear informal science. Visitor Studies, 3 (3), 21-28.

Okada, T. & Crowley, K. (2000). What makes for interesting developmental research? Perspectives from the sociocultural and information processing frameworks. In H. Kojima, T. Hayamizu, & H. Honjo (Eds.), Human Development and Psychology. Tokyo: Kanekoshbo. [Original in Japanese]

Crowley, K. & Siegler, R.S. (1999). Explanation and generalization in young children's strategy learning. Child Development, 70, 304-316.

Schunn, C.D., Crowley, K.  & Okada, T. (1998). The growth of multidisciplinarity in the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science, 22, 107-130.

Crowley, K. & Callanan, M.A. (1998). Identifying and supporting shared scientific reasoning in parent-child interactions. Journal of Museum Education, 23, 12-17.

Crowley, K., Shrager, J., & Siegler, R.S. (1997). Strategy discovery as a competitive negotiation between metacognitive and associative knowledge. Developmental Review, 17, 462-489.

Siegler, R.S.  & Crowley, K. (1994). Constraints on learning in non-privileged domains. Cognitive Psychology, 27, 194-226.

Crowley, K. & Siegler, R.S. (1993). Flexible strategy use in young children's tic-tac-toe. Cognitive Science, 17, 531-561.

Siegler, R.S. & Crowley, K. (1991). The microgenetic method: A direct means for studying cognitive development. American Psychologist, 46, 606-620.